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Police Commissioner Karl O’Callaghan and former Nationals leader Brendon Grylls could be high-profile recruits to Andrew Forrest’s philanthropic organisation.

Mr O’Callaghan and Mr Grylls have been in discussions about possible roles with Minderoo Foundation, whose aims include ending modern slavery and indigenous disadvantage.

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Andrew Forrest uses violent video to push cashless welfare card to Malcolm Turnbull

You won't succeed... Its a plan, already doomed before it is implemented huh... When are they gonna learn? Tut tut tut....

ATTN: Aboriginal Australian Consensus called - they want a full refund on the scam that was be returned and evenly distributed to EVERY Aboriginal nation...and an open letter of apology from anyone involved with this disturbing propaganda hustle. #SHAME

S. Cook
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7 News Brisbane

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Mabo didnt fight for native title either!

Country Needs People

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Awesome work well done

An amazing young man who all Australians should aspire to be like. .these programs should be applauded and enhanced as we know the country need people and people need this country...not destroyed or dug up but whole

Dan Keynes

I understand some of you want to see only positive things but I struggle to remain positive day in day out when our people are being vilified in the media, living in 3rd and 4th world conditions, dying in custody, removed from their countries and family and murdered without justice. If the negativity annoys you just ignore us just like the govt does!

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The page is called "Blackfulla Revolution". What did they think they think people were revolting against? If people aren't angry about the state of play in this country then they are delusional or enjoying privileged white lives. If the truth makes them uncomfortable then they need to stop claiming the title of allies.

I don't think it's about ignoring the negative, it's about also celebrating small achievements. Recognizing the small win moments are helpful to keep spirits upbeat and positive and keep things moving forward. And I say this as someone who is self confessed negative and cynical!

Unfortunately so much of what has happened and is still happening is negative (to put it mildly! ). Ignoring it means nothing will ever change. You are raising awareness with your voice and that is so important. If people don't want to see negative stuff on this page then they should help change the current situation so that there isn't as much negativity to be talked about. We can't change the past but we can learn from it to make the future positive! (Who knew I was so philosophical at 8.40am on a Saturday!? 😁).

I think that you share a good mix of both positivity and realism. The truth is confronting for some, but don't ever let that diminish your voice. xx.

If sharing the truth is the wrong thing than tell me what the right thing is... People need to know the hard truth and fuck those people who don't want to en knowledge the truth, well they can go get Effed!!!

I'm uncomfortable with the fact that people think those who are oppressed must always face their oppressors in a peaceful, loving way, caring about their feelings. You've got to do it your way and you've got to do what gets results as quickly as possible because you have suffered too much for too long. Keep fighting your way. I am learning from you and supportive of the needs you determine.

There are many good news stories to be shared & thank you for sharing these! they are uplifting & inspirational, but i dont think any one of of us here is oblivious to the struggles Indigenous people face each & every day. Thank you for keeping it real & reminding us we need to do better

I'm uncomfortable with the fact it took me so long to realise my privledge and actually give a shit about others. Thanks for using your time to educate and advocate. I've learnt a lot here.

Wow. I'm so, so sorry that white people exist. 😢 This should NEVER happen to a race of people. And those that benefit from it, see fit to deny and/or justify such inhumane treatment. It's just a curse to look like those responsible. 😠

Both working for the positive aspects as well as bringing to the attention of all, the negative aspects which have been going on for too long - this is my idea of a peaceful revolution.

It's heartbreaking to hear the history the stories the injustice but what breaks my heart more is it has not stopped keep sharing ❤️❤️❤️

I've got no time for people who think the suffering of others is a downer. I love your work!

So much respect and time for you and all people speaking the truth!

So who are these lucky people able to choose what they and others see and experience?

WhiteFragility™ Fucks sake.

Blackfulla Revolution I totally agree with your. Same People can't handle the True I do Not Need to be Aboriginal to Support Aboriginal Rights.

Keep up the good work 💕

I am here for the truth.....negative or positive.

I am sorry.

Fuck captain cook!

Its called hope for me aye...

Well said!!

So true Hine

Keep up the good work Blackfulla! May the truth prevail.Like it or leave it!

Hows this for a deadly Forte Flag!

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Shit hot🙃

Deadly woman 💜

Fact checked and found to be accurate!

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No person or nation state should be held accountable for the actions of their ancestors.

And they're complaining about terrorism and immigration...WTF

Yep and we need to remember. I think we should rename Australia day as Remember Day. Lets remember all the truths. Fronteer wars and the way british leaders treated all our people including the whites. Remember all the blood spilled the lows and the highs. Good times and bad. It is the forge and the anvil that made us who we are. Quote from one of my songs called Australian.

All countries in the world have been invaded by outsiders at some stage in their history. The original inhabitants of those countries have not and will not get their land back. However, we must acknowledge the existence and culture of the original inhabitants of all countries. Australia is no different to every other country in the world.

Most British people are mortified by the way our government have treated people over history. I'm personally sorry for the pain and devastation. Britain has also been invaded by Saxons, Normans and Romans. It's what we do now that counts. I will do anything to help improve people lives today. I'm truly sorry.

War has been part of England's culture before it was even England. A strangely familiar experience most of it was brought by invading cultures who have gone on to become the English/British. It's also fought itself (or exiles) countless times. The history of atrocities inflicted on its population through war waged or suffered by the British teaches a truth for those with the wit to spot the difference between the symptom and the cause. Wealth, privelige, gross inequality in the distribution of wealth, power and control are the true causes of suffering, hate and pain. Colonisation was just the re-brand of Crusade which is really just a re-brand of migration.

Should of used a more appropriate image..they hardly were invading in ww1 but fighting for other countries who were invaded..poor show

the british have created more terror on the earth in the last 200 years than anyone else

And yet one of the most intolerant country now...

Mate get over it and read a book. What about the roman's or before them.... this is life...

Jimmy Davo You'll find this interesting.. even though I reckon you know it already👌

Filthy terrorist grubs . Fake Aussies . Descendants of Brit shit .

That may be so Phillip Lowe but we can still try to make amends

And abused and steal the people of these countries

That's about the state if it!

it's why the world speaks english, lol

and wiped out so many 'native' peoples


I wander why ???

Yep. A shower of see you next tuesday's.

It is what Empires do best.


Stef Nicole

These are the 22 countries that Britain hasn't invaded : Andorra, Belarus, Bolivia, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Guatemala, Ivory Coast ,Kyrgyzstan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Mali, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Mongolia, Paraguay, Sao Tome and Principe, Sweden, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Vatican City

12 hours ago

David Keig

I am on holiday in Morocco with my family from England. What has struck me is how very very little anyone at all seems to know about Aboriginal history and culture. When I say very little I really mean almost zero. My sister and my niece are schoolteachers and know a fair bit about the world. My niece, in particular, is involved in inter cultural art projects and spent a couple of months in Australia some years ago travelling round. But knowing about Aboriginal stuff? Next to nothing. I've spoken to local artists here - mostly Berber - and they're fascinated. I've shown them pics of Aboriginal art - not just dot painting - and weaving and (Cleonie's) jewellery and played Yunupingu. They all love it. But It's like Australia is stuck in a bubble. How do we break out? ... See MoreSee Less


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Wow Clinton....You are my hero 🙂

You are a living treasure Clinton. 😍


Proud of you Clinton Pryor 😊

17 hours ago

Blackfulla Revolution

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We love ya Clinton. You make us all feel stronger. You tell them pretenders in Canberra what they can't seem to get into their 'amazing' minds without being told. Power to our people. ✊

23 hours ago

Pat Craig

‘Alternative Aboriginal Economies: Martu Livelihoods in the Twenty-First Century’ – Brian F. Codding, Rebecca Bliege Bird, Douglas W. Bird, and David W. Zeanah


In the western deserts of Australia, hunting and gathering endures as an important social and economic activity. That foraging persists within the boundaries of developed industrialized nation-states may come as a surprise to those who evaluate foraging as less profitable than agricultural or market alternatives. However, the tendency to dismiss foraging as a less viable mode of production may be an error given the evidence that foraging can sometimes be the best option within certain constraints. If this is the case in Australia, then the maintenance of foraging into the twenty-first century may be as much an economic decision as one aimed at maintaining social relations, identity, and connections to traditional lands and practices.

Determining whether foraging is indeed a viable economic alternative to those embedded within state and market economies requires comparable data across each mode of production. To date, these data have been lacking because quantitative ethnographic research into Aboriginal economies has tended to focus either on the internal dynamics of foraging practices (Altman 1987; Bliege Bird and Bird 2008; Gould 1980; O’Connell and Hawkes 1984) or the external impacts of market economies and government schemes (Altman and Gray 2010; Fijn et al. 2012; Martin 2001). Recently, an approach that seeks to understand the interactions between traditional and external factors came out of the Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research at Australian National University, where Altman (2001, 2003, 2007, 2010) proposes a hybrid economy model. In this model, traditional, state, and market options are viewed as complementary. Traditional practices feed markets (e.g. art, tourism), and the state supports these activities through subsidies (e.g. welfare, pensions, state-run jobs) and market expenditures (e.g. taxes), with some traditional practices (e.g. land management) feeding back to support the state.

Within this three-mode economic framework, individuals face trade-offs between engaging in one economic arena versus another. To evaluate these trade-offs, we examine the relative benefits of alternative economic pursuits in remote Western Desert Aboriginal communities today. Specifically, we evaluate the relative costs and benefits of foraging, working for a wage, and producing paintings for sale. First, we establish estimates of relative efficiency for each task. Then, we examine how individuals allocate their time to each of these activities. Finally, we evaluate how time allocation for these activities varies as a function of the decisions of co-residing spouses and the number of co-residing dependents. These final analyses allow us to determine if individuals coordinate tasks within the household as an economic unit and evaluate which activities people focus on in order to provision dependents. If foraging provides a complementary income to other activities, then the contemporary division of labor between men and women may be a function of coordinated work choice. Further, if foraging activities are more compatible with child care than the alternatives, this compatibility may provide an additional explanation for the retention of foraging. These results provide insights into how individuals negotiate between these economies to fulfill subsistence needs while meeting social obligations to others in the community. Our findings outline how individual decisions aggregate to create the contemporary shape and structure of Aboriginal economies observed in remote communities today.

Ethnographic Background

Martu (also Mardu or Mardujarra) is the term most frequently used to refer to a group of Aboriginal Australians belonging to one of five dialect groups: Manyjilyjarra, Kartujarra, Warnman, Putijarra, and Kiyajarra. Collectively, the dialects are known as Martu Wankga or “Martu Speak”. While individuals maintain their identities as belonging to one or some combination of these and other dialects, there is a still larger Martu identity, which seems to have emerged as members of these five dialect groups came into increasing contact with each other after the European incursion into the deserts. During this process, the hybrid economy also developed through interactions of Martu with outsiders and their alternative economies.

Invasion, Abandonment, and Return: The Emergence of a Martu Identity and a Hybrid Economy

Contact with European Australians occurred in multiple events with different groups from the early decades of the twentieth century through the 1960s (Davenport 2005). Repoting on the Aboriginal economy during the contact period, Tonkinson (1993) suggests that individuals spent about half the day foraging, which left ample time for other activities. Women’s labor provided the majority of daily foods and sometimes focused on tree and grass seeds and other times on small vertebrates like sand monitor lizards; men focused on less reliable resources including hill kangaroos, which frequently resulted in failed hunts (Tonkinson 1993). Contact-era bands were centered on women’s cooperative groups, often sororal co-wives (Scelza and Bliege Bird 2008). Reliable access to plants, especially seeds, required the use of fire to increase habitat heterogeneity and plant diversity (Walsh 1990). These broad patterns appear to have been common in the Western Desert: Gould (1967, 1969a, 1969b) reports similar finds among Ngatatjarra foragers to the south of Martu country.

At the time of contact, Aboriginal economies were based solely on foraging. But this traditional economy and way of life shifted as people began to leave the desert and were taken to surrounding mission settlements. Some Martu and their relatives went north to the Catholic La Grange Mission (Bidyadanga community), whereas others went into Papunua, but the majority of those (and their descendants) now in Martu communities left their homes in the desert and went to the station at Jigalong. Jigalong was originally established as a depot to supply crews constructing the Rabbit Proof Fence. Later, it also became the site of an epistolic mission (Tonkinson 1974, 1990). The mission’s purpose was to convert the Aboriginal population then exiting the desert, and it attempted to do so by schooling the youth, encouraging a disciplined life among adults, and providing rations to all. Using a “capture by flour” strategy, missionaries and government operators introduced market goods as a means of making individuals abandon foraging economies and become reliant on these purchased goods. This practice ushered in the first elements of a hybrid economy which coincided with a growing recognition that individuals from each dialect group shared a common Martu identity (Tonkinson 1974). This period ended with the mission’s withdrawal in 1969. In many ways, missionary efforts were a failure as they converted only one individual over the twenty-five years of operation (Tonkinson 1974, 2007). The unintended consequences of the mission period included the realization by Martu that they had a collective interest in opposing outsiders and the economic alternatives forced upon them. It was in this context that Martu began their return to the desert.

The period of “self-determination” or “autonomy” began with the return of Martu to the desert, where they established three communities within their ancestral lands: Punmu, Kunawaritji, and Parnngurr. This work focuses on Parnngurr community, which was established gradually as residents of Jigalong began camping near Parnngurr Rockhole to protest a mining operation that was testing for uranium in the area. While the initial occupation was not permanent, it sent a serious message to government and mining officials and resulted in the eventual establishment of Parnngurr community in the mid- to late 1980s. Parnngurr School (Parnngurr Martukurnu Kuul) was founded soon after in 1988 (Davenport et al. 2005; Tonkinson 1993; Walsh 1987, 2008). With government support, the hybrid economy further expanded. Although individuals relied heavily on foraging (Walsh 2008), government funds also supported community infrastructure.

The government supported this “outstation movement” by providing subsidies and infrastructure including a community store, a government office, and generators. While this support facilitated community development, Martu did not yet have title over the land. Traditionally, individuals gain and maintain rights to tracts of land known as estates (Stanner 1965). Through birth, initiation, marriage, and other means, men and women gather a collection of estates through their lives (Tonkinson 1993). The combined Martu estates center on the Karlamilyi River and extend to the Percival Lakes and Lake Disappointment, With growing commercial (particularly mining) interests in the area, Martu have sought to articulate their traditional system of land tenure with the Australian legal system. Through persistent efforts lasting into the twenty-first century, Martu were awarded native title over most of their traditional estates in 2002-2003. Although the Australian government now recognizes basic Aboriginal land rights, problems related to self-governance, political autonomy, and economic independence are far from over.

Martu are still struggling with land issues on at least two fronts. First, they continue to have conflicts with mining companies that seek to extract resources (including, once again, uranium) within the native title determination area. Current disagreements between mining companies and various members of communities will likely continue as potential benefits and costs of mining are debated. The second issue of sovereignty concerns the governance of Karlamilyi National Park, which is situated within the center of the Martu native title area. The Karlamilyi River is one of the most important areas to Martu, and especially to Warnman-speaking people, but the Australian government did not return these lands to Martu as part of their native title. Currently, government land managers are interested in incorporating Martu into future management schemes, and a few Martu are participating in a nongovernmental organization (NGO)-sponsored ranger program that pays individuals to monitor parts of the region frequented by tourists as a kind of “caring for Country” initiative (Morrison 2007). However, most Martu simply assert their sovereignty over the park by travelling in and out of its borders without notice–burning, hunting, and camping along the way.

Despite these issues surrounding formal sovereignty and autonomy, individuals maintain their traditional rights to Country by maintaining their traditional foraging economies. Today, however, these practices cannot be continued without subsidies from the state. While state funds continue to support the community, many government officials still lack insight into what is actually happening on the ground in these remote communities. Frequently this lack of understanding leads to misinterpretations of a community’s needs, wants, and values (Folds 2001; Tonkinson and Tonkinson 2010). Perhaps as a result of these misunderstandings, policies can sometimes tend to be paternalistic and even outright hostile toward Aborginal ways of life (see Altman and Hinkson 2007; Maddison 2008). Some suggest that events such as “the intervention” may mark the beginning of the end of the self-determination era, though this fact is far from evident in the remote communities of Western Australia. Here, ill-planned and mishandled government schemes more generally result in wasted funds and humorous stories of cross-cultural misunderstand. Some relief from these repeated failures may come out of the recent rise of locally managed NGOs, though these are still quite new and only time will tell what their impacts truly are. As it now stands, basic government support of the community is integral to the maintenance of traditional foraging economies, a hallmark of the hybrid economy in remote communities today.

Community Life in Parnngurr Today

On any given day, Parnngurr community has between two and two hundred plus residents. Populations shift between communities, towns, and ephemeral camps in the desert, and many of their movements are based on the same factors that would have pushed and pulled populations throughout the desert for thousands of years: food, water, family, and social and ritual obligations. Now with motor vehicles, individuals can travel large distances over short periods of time; for example, individuals may reside in one of the communities but still maintain daily access to their traditional hunting grounds over an hour’s drive away. Food may dictate some movements at larger scales as well: many young families with bilocal ties between the desert and coast may temporarily relocate from one to the other based on which resources are “on”. People are also likely to make such moves in order to maintain social ties between dispersed family and friends and to fulfill ritual obligations associated with initiations and funerals.

When in Parnngurr, hearth-groups consisting of collections of individuals generally live in camps, which are centered at house structures (mostly pre-fabricated) supplied by the government or donated by one of the local mining companies. Each generally has a kitchen, two to four bedrooms, a bathroom, and possibly a main living-type room. Anyone can rent a camp from the community, though the majority of camps are maintained by senor community members. Camps generally have a core set of residences, though many people usually sleep outside in the warm months, inside in the cold months. When inside, rooms are shared based on kin and age classification (e.g. single men, co-habiting spouses perhaps with children, older co-wives or sisters, single parents with children, grandparents with grandchildren). Rarely is anyone left with a room to themselves, both out of tradition and personal preference. However, those who share space do not necessarily extend that relationship into the daily economic or social sphere. Rather, it signifies merely that they co-reside.


Foraging is a major occupation of remote community residents today. Someone goes out foraging from the community nearly every day, and women and men spend about 13.3 and 17.4%, respectively, of all days foraging (Codding 2012). It remains as important for food as it is for maintaining social relations, individual identities, and ties to traditional life. While many aspects of foraging have changed over the last forty years, most of these changes are predictable from a simple cost/benefit perspective. Seeds have dropped from the diet, replaced by processed flour (O’Connell and Hawkes 1984). Metal tools have mostly replaced those made of wood and stone. Rifles have largely replaced spear-throwers. Perhaps most important, vehicles have become central to aspects of travel, transport, and, for some resources, search.

While Martu will still sometimes walk out from the community to forage for nearby resources, vehicles allow them to maintain a relatively centralized residential base in the community while also accessing traditional foraging locations (or hunt regions) distributed up to about an hour away. Perhaps as an unintended consequence of the adoption of vehicles, hunting tracks have become central corridors of movement through the desert. The main tracks have become central corridors of movement through the desert. The main tracks head out of the community in four named cardinal directions and branch out from there in what initially seems like an innumerable combination of connections and loops. A detailed knowledge of these four-wheel-drive hunting tracks is not only a skill required for navigation, but also a source of pride for those who raise and lower a hand, tick a finger, and point with their lips to indicate prior knowledge of every bump, twist, turn, and landmark along the way. Equally important is the creation of new, straight tracks into long unvisited foraging locales and the correction of old, unnecessarily curving roads. Depending on the foraging activity and the season, Martu may travel out from the community and begin searching for resources immediately subsequently returning to the community to process and cook their catches. But for most resources, Martu head out of the community and establish a temporary dinnertime camp.

Dinnertime camps are the economic and social locus of foraging. Foragers decide on the hunt region that they are going to travel to and choose the location of the dinnertime camp on arrival. Generally, this choise is made through unassuming consent, though arguments over the ideal locale do sometimes occur. Upon arrival, some may immediately depart from the vehicle to start foraging, others may collect firewood (waru), and some may wait around for a bit before departing. Depending on the activity, foragers may work together or separately and may be accompanied by children or may leave their dependents behind at the temporary dinnertime camp. The duration of their foraging venture is here referred to as a foraging bout. A foraging bout includes the time a forager is in the process of searching for food, pursuing it, and traveling back to the dinnertime camp.

When people return from hunting and collecting wild resources, they typically sit around the fire processing their harvest over discussions of the bout and perhaps a cup of tea. With smaller resources like sand monitor lizards, foragers typically process their own catch and sometimes the catches of others. For larger resources like kangaroo, the hunters will deposit their pretty at the edge of camp and take a seat with the others; a senior individual will typically take over processing from there (Bird and Bliege Bird 2008, 2010; Bird et al. 2009; Gould 1967). Hunters cook animal resources following the Law passed down by the Dreaming ancestors (the Jukurrpa): they first singe the animal’s hair or skin in the hot flames of a burning fire; then allow a portion of the fire to burn down to coals, heating the sand in the process; and then dig a hole to accommodate the animal, which they then carefully place and cover with hot sand and coals. Sometimes a senior woman may bring a bowl, flour, and baking powder in order to make an unleavened bread called a damper (similar to traditional seed dampers), which is also cooked in the fire either in a depression in the sand (following the method used to cook game) or in a cast-iron pan. After processing and cooking are completed, resources are generally shared between all present. Sharing around a hearth takes on a ritual appearance as individuals pass lizards, cuts of meat, fruit, torn-off bits of damper, and store-bought items like crackers or a can of baked beans, Based on the high probability that they will fail to capture risky prey items, some individuals typically rely on the foraging income of others. However, Martu gladly share with those who do not contribute. After everyone is satiated, the foragers load up in the vehicle and begin the return trip to the community. Departure from dinnertime camp is sometimes discussed but is frequently abupt, based on some comment or a consensus of full stomachs. Occasionally, if the foraging is very productive and obligations elsewhere limited, a dinnertime camp may extend into an overnight camp, though more frequently, overnight or multiday camps are planned in advance. While these longer duration camps extend the size and scope of dinnertime camps, they typically maintain the same basic characteristics.


While Martu art originated long ago in a noncommercial context, it has transitioned over the years from traditional medium, including the body, cave walls, and sand, to acrylic on canvas aimed at a national and international art market. While this process began gradually, the production of art-for-sale expanded rapidly with the formation of the Martu arts cooperative (Martumili) in 2006. Since then, painting and, to a lesser extent, basketmaking and carving have become a major economic and social force in the community. Martu art is uniquely situated within the desert arts tradition, and particular individuals are becoming artists celebrated by a growing community of critics, scholars, and buyers.

Martu see painting as a way of maintaining and sharing traditional knowledge while simultaneously producing a product for market. Paintings are more frequently expressions of particular Dreamtime tracts (or “song lines”) of estates (or Country) over which individuals have traditional rights, though to the artist, the paintings are more than mere representations. According to Myers (2002), desert art is not so much a story that can be decoded or a representation of some discrete event or place; rather (to those initiated), it is what it represents. Here, place is Jukurrpa; the social landscape, the physical landscape, and the metaphysical landscape are one and the same, as are their representations in paint. Lest these be judged excessively artful interpretations, we would point out that this alternative ontology has a strong foundation. In remarks on Aboriginal philosophy, Elkin (1969) notes that Jukurrpa and things in the world do not have a direct cause-and-effect relationship because the two exist simultaneously as the same. This idea may be extended to painting–acrylic on canvas is not any less the Jukurrpa than Country is Jukurrpa. This is at the core of why artistic production and sharing are so important. The Law passed down from the Dreaming ancestors requires the maintenance of these traditional practices and encourages them to be shared widely. Akin to performative representations in traditional dance and song in which knowledge of Country is shared with others, paintings are distributed widely across the world to serve a similar function, though in a different medium, to a different audience, and at a much larger scale (Carty 2012; Myers 2002).

While people could paint or make baskets every day (as long as the materials are available), people generally paint incrementally. They sometimes spend many consecutive days sitting in front of their camp, in the art shed, or at the arts cooperative office in town, but other times individuals start a painting, work on it for half the day, then go out hunting in subsequent days, leaving the painting partially finished for weeks. Such a staccato rhythm may have to do with other social obligations, but it may also have to do with how individuals weigh alternative economic pursuits. Indeed, the economics of painting and how it ties in with alternative livelihoods is an open topic that demands further exploration.

Wage Labor

Opportunities to engage in wage labor are limited in remote Aboriginal communities. The most common form of employment comes from the state through the Community Development and Education Program (CDEP). While every unemployed member of the community receives either a welfare stipend through Centrelink or a “pension” if they are of retirement age, those who choose to work for CDEP can double their welfare payment. CDEP jobs are generally off-and-on based on the presence or absence of someone to organize them. Tasks include cleaning the community, dumping rubbish bins from individual camps at the tip (dump), assisting in the operation of government office, and cooking meals at the center for the elderly.

Martu may also receive wages from nonprofit organizations, partially funded by the government through grants. Tasks include cultural awareness training for miners, monitoring of endangered species, and ranger work along the heavily toured Canning Stock Route. These pay well, but opportunities are inconsistent. Thus, working for a nonprofit probably provides about the same weekly rate as topping off unemployment benefits with CDEP wages. One exception is a ranger program that was started by the nonprofit organization Kanyrninpa Jukurrpa in 2009. If funding continues, it may provide a few people with regular work directed at preserving natural and cultural resources in the Martu native title and Karlamilyi National Park. But as with most government-sponsored employment schemes, funding can be lost, programs cuts, and wages disappear. In reality, the irregularity of employment is not necessarily a bad thing as Martu place a greater value on so many other aspects of life than earning regular wages. When employment comes into conflict with social, ritual, and family obligations, wage work rarely takes precedent.

While the data we will examine covers only wage labor in the community, wage opportunities can also be found outside of the community, and these can draw people away for extended periods of time. Options include work in cattle stations (particularly to the north near Bidyadanga), but more frequently people take up work in one of the regional mining operations. Martu who work in the mines earn about $3,000 per fortnight, with one or two weeks off in between shifts. Such rigid schedules frequently conflict with important obligations, including initiations and funerals. Moreover, time away from family is a serious added cost. Frequently, individuals will take a job for a brief rotation in order to acquire enough funds for a particular item or event. Often though, the early departure is not planned but emerges out of conflicts between job requirements and familial obligations or longing for home. As Burbank (2006) has written about Aboriginal communities in southern Arnhem Land, paid work is sometimes avoided because of the obligation to be on a schedule.

Time Allocation

We observed between seventeen and thirty-seven persons in one of our focal activities per day, resulting in 899 person-days for which an activity was recorded and 357 person-days in which individuals were scored as absent, totaling 1,256 person-days overall. Individuals were divided into three age classes: pre-initiate (young), adult, and senior adult. Adults spent about 39% of all days either foraging, painting, or engaged in wage labor, whereas senior adults spent 57.8% of their days working in one of these activities (Codding 2012). All other days were spent in pursuit of some other activity, including ritual, vehicle repair, or rest.

Of the days allocated to one of our focal productive activities, adult and senior individuals together divided their time unevenly, with approximately 52% of days dedicated to foraging, 39% to wage labor, and 9% to painting or producing other traditional goods for sale. These results show that adult and senior individuals spend disproportionately more of their time foraging, as we predicted based on the benefits of the alternatives. However, we also found a good degree of variability. One woman and several men only spent time in wage labor, another group of individuals only in foraging, and one woman was only observed painting. To understand what might drive this variability, we next examine how the presence or absence of a co-residing spouse and the number of co-residing dependents predict time allocation across these different activities.

Determinants of Work Choice

To determine what explains variability in work-choice decisions, we examined individual time allocation relative to household demographics. First, if foraging provides better outcomes compared to other activities, then coordinated work choice by men and women could help explain the maintenance of foraging as well as variability across individuals. Second, if foraging individuals choose to allocate more time to foraging when they reside with more dependents, then foraging may be a more compatible option than other work alternatives and may support the retention of foraging practices.

If spouses specialized in complementary activities, then we would expect the activities of co-residing spouses to negatively covary (Gurven and Hill 2009). However, an examination of paired spousal data suggests that individuals do not coordinate their labor at all, either negatively or positively. The time allocated to different work alternatives does not positively or negatively covary between co-residing spouses, suggesting that husbands and wives do not coordinate as economic units. Complementarity across work alternatives does not seem to predict variability in time allocated to work and does not help explain the retention of foraging.

If individuals care for and provision co-residing dependents (regardless of relatedness), then they should increase their work effort as a function of the number of co-residing dependents. Although we should not necessarily predict a linear increase given the possibility of shared child care (Kramer 2011), work choice should still be partially directed by the needs of dependents. The results show that neither the number of individuals working for a wage nor the number of people painting changes as a function of the number of co-residing dependents. However, people do increase the number of days they spend foraging with up to three co-residing dependents, suggesting that individuals provision dependents through foraging rather than wage labor or painting.


While foraging is often dismissed as a nonviable economic alternative, our results show that foraging appears to be one of the best economic alternatives available in remote desert Aboriginal communities today. But because foraging now requires travel in four-wheel-drive vehicles and because these vehicles require monetary inputs for fuel and maintenance, foraging is only viable in combination with wage-producing tasks or reliance on the state, as is the case among the Inuit (Wenzel “Inuit Culture: To Have and Have Not; or, Has Subsistence Become an Anachronism?”). Considering these factors, we think Altman’s (2001, 2003, 2007, 2010) “hybrid economy” may aptly describe conditions in remote communities today. Rather than suggesting that Aboriginal populations should work to articulate their traditional economies with the market (through painting) or the state (through co-management of natural resources), these results suggest that individuals should be left to engage with their traditional economies in ways that best suit their needs.

Given the benefits of foraging, we should not be surprised that individuals in Parnngurr allocate more time to foraging than to any other economic pursuits. Variability across individuals seems to be partially determined by household demographics. Though spouses do not seem to coordinate their work efforts, individuals do choose to forage more to care for more dependents, which is likely the result of immediate returns gained from foraging and the fact that foraging provides a social environment more compatible with caring for children than the alternatives, especially when extended family members, particularly grandmothers, may be available to share in the costs of child care (Scelza 2009). Furthermore, the approximately two children per dinnertime camp would receive not only basic care but also food and education on traditional practices from foraging adults. While not all foraging activities are equal in their propensity to reliably provide food or in their compatibility with child care, many of the foraging activities undertaken most by Martu do indeed meet these requirements. Women’s sand monitor hunting, which also provides long-term environmental benefits may be particularly important.

On the Foraging Mode of Production

In his classic treatise, Sahlins (1972) proposed that hunter-gatherers were the original affluent society. This proposal was based on, among other things, the observation that Aboriginal foragers in Arnhem Land (see McCarthy and MacArthur 1960) worked only a few hours to provide for their limited wants and limited needs. We raise this point not to prolong the stereotype but to illustrate an alternative interpretation of this observation in light of the data we have presented. Foraging as an economic alternative may be driven not by limited want, but by the benefits of foraging relative to the alternatives. Even in the twenty-first century, foragers may be able to work fewer hours for parallel rewards. Thus, we should not be surprised to see so many individuals foraging so frequently in remote communities today.

These trends make particular sense when viewed through the lends of human behavioral ecology (Smith 2013; Winterhalder and Smith 1981, 1992, 2000), which typically assumes that individual decisions are made to optimize outcomes within constraints. By quantifying the trade-offs associated with different activities, we are able to gain better insight into the costs and benefits individuals experience. In the context of twenty-first century hunting and gathering, as in any economic context, it is not hard to see why working less for equal rewards may be a better strategy. Add a social context within which accumulation is not rewarded but punished (Bird and Bliege Bird 2010; Myers 1986, 1989), and the continued importance of a foraging mode of production is understandable. Indeed, the social costs imposed on those who opt out of a traditional economy–in which individuals gain wealth by sharing widely–may be equally important in explaining why individuals continue to forage.

While foraging may be able to satiate limited wants and limited needs, some from “mainstream” Australian society do not understand remote community life and consider foraging to somehow be “backward”. Some individuals use this interpretation as support for cultural assimilation (see McGregor 1999; Myers 1988), and their ideas continue to linger in the background of contemporary debates about development that center on economic integration (Altman 2010).

On Development and Conservation

Our findings suggest some specific reasons to continue government support for remote communities and the traditional activities that occur in and around them. As others have noted, various indicators of health, wealth, and well-being all show that those living in remote communities may be better off than their urban counterparts (Burgess et al. 2005; Garnett et al. 2009; Tonkinson and Tonkinson 2010). However, many of the efforts to “help” Martu in remote communities may actually impede the behaviors that are causing these benefits.

Contemporary government policies frequently encourage remote community residents to engage in the market economy, which detracts from traditional strategies for making a living and caring for children. As we have shown, Martu may be much better off foraging than engaging in government employment schemes–choosing to forage is a rational economic decision. Instead of trying to stop people from hunting and gathering wild resources, government policies may do better to support traditional practices. Rather than providing job training, in-town education, and “opportunities” to work, the government should, both for people and the environment, encourage and support life in these remote communities. Support of foraging may be particularly important as foraging from a central community incurs greater monetary costs, most likely due to a (relatively) large population that is likely to deplete resources around the community, leading to higher travel and transport costs to and from productive foraging locations (Codding 2014). Funding the diesel for vehicles that allow individuals to travel to more remote locales may be crucial to an increase in food sovereignty in these remote communities. Unfortunately, the government and even private organizations have begun to downplay and even disallow expenditures for the purchase of vehicles, vehicle maintenance, or diesel. The opposite should in fact be a priority if people want to ensure Martu livelihoods in these communities, and doing so may also provide added benefits to individual health and the environment.

Because foraged foods are typically healthier than low-quality store items (particularly those that are affordable) and because foraging itself generally leads to greater levels of exercise than would be found in most jobs, individuals serve to gain on multiple fronts by maintaining a foraging lifestyle. The maintenance of this lifestyle may further lead to reductions in the overall healthcare costs that are currently dominated by treatment rather than preventative measures. In addition, the support rather than stigmatization of this traditional mode of economic production may lead to mental health benefits. Because foraging is equally valued for social as well as economic reasons, stigmas on foraging can be particularly harmful–and breaking down these stigmas could be particularly beneficial.

Not only does foraging serve to benefit individual health, it also promotes the health and biodiversity of the desert environment. As discussed elsewhere (Bleige Bird et al. 2008, 2012a, 2013; Codding 2012, 2014). Desert ecologies coevolved with Martu hunting, collecting, and burning practices, and so biodiversity tends to increase with Martu foraging. The restructuring of vegetation resulting from Martu burning practices may be particularly beneficial to many now threatened small mammal populations. This issue is something that government agencies express interest in addressing, whether or not they actually do so. Attempts to incorporate Aboriginal insights and participation into government-sponsored environmental management schemes typically involve turning individuals into Western-style land managers–a trend sometimes referred to as the “caring for country” movement. However, at least in the Martu case, it is what Martu just do that promotes biodiversity. Formal programs designed to make people “care” may simply get in the way of the real environmental benefits that result from Martu hunting, gathering, and burning in an ecology that evolved with humans performing those very activities (Codding 2012; Walsh 2008). In essence, agencies do not need to pay people not to hunt so that they can work to “manage” the land. Instead, agencies should encourage hunting–biodiversity will follow (Bird 2009).

Policies that create disincentives to forage will likely have negative consequences–less food sovereignty; declines in physical, mental and social health; and reductions in biodiversity–the opposite of what such policies intend to accomplish. Policies that support foraging, on the other hand, will likely have positive effects on community health, social cohesion, and the desert environment.

Summary and Conclusion

Models of twenty-first century foraging tend to either ignore external dynamics, instead focusing on foraging activities alone, or examine state and market alternatives without treating foraging as a viable alternative. By examining the trade-offs between foraging, painting, and wage labor within a remote desert Aboriginal community, we show, contrary to many common assumptions, that foraging is one of the most productive economics alternatives within the community. While co-residing spouses to not seem to coordinate labor across activies, individuals do forage significantly more frequently as a function of the number of co-residing dependents. This finding suggests that while households are no economic units per se, individuals do adjust their work levels based on the need to provision dependents through foraging within a dinnertime camp structure. These results suggest an answer to the question posted in the title of this book. People continue to forage because it is a viable economic alternative. Development efforts may be best directed at facilitating traditional foraging practices, which will in turn supply profound social and environmental benefits. ~ “Why Forage?: Hunters and Gatherers in the Twenty-First Century” (pg. 185-210)
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Apocalypse in Blak

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Amber Wells check this!

Deb Parkinson Marita Rose

1 day ago

Voices of the 3%

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Nontheistic Religious Studies
Clinton's Walk for Justice
Aboriginal Embassy
Clinton's Walk for Justice

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It's fine to share yeah?

yes this is what its all about being heard getting the message out speaking the issues on behalf of your people and all the people .. love following your journey such an amazing thing to have taken on wishing you all the best on the last leg and looking forward to seeing your reception in Canberra✊the man!

Recognition for our first nations people an as of many of walks our people done did of this country {-0-} strong culture united ..❤ god bless u Clinton❤

How long it took ANY media to acknowledge Clinton's magnificent walk across this huge land.

Wheres all the aussie coverage?

Good work buddy 🙂

Yes go Clinton

Good on ya. he's awesome

And so they should......

Inspiration man

good on you Clinton

Well done Clinton.

What a great man

Brilliant effort!

You inspire me Clinton !

what a champ.

Very admiral man. Well done.


2 days ago

Blackfulla Revolution

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I am making a short documentary and I am looking for an indigenous person to interview who is knowledgeable about pituri and its place within society. 

Would it be possible for you to put me in contact with someone who could help me with this?

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Uncle Noel Nannup

Maybe Vivienne Hansen? Co author of nyoongar bush medicine

Uncle Stephen Williams

James Ryce

Gawaian Bodkin-Andrews

Hi BFR. Wondering what you and others think about this ...

These paintings pop up for sale all the time on the FB Marketplace in Perth. Admittedly the lady has changed the blurb a bit now, but a couple of months ago the only way you would know she wasnt an Indigenous artist was to go snooping about on her own page! I reported her art page back then and she has since changed her wording somewhat, but it still seems off to me. 

I shared the recent Guardian article about appropriation of Indigenous art with her (the link at the top of our IM thread, but I dont think shes picking up what Im putting down.

Would appreciate hearing others thoughts.

Thanks :)
This bloke is not aware oppressive demoralizing quick fix Native Welfare like operations of the cashless card will not stop Alcohol and Drug abuse. More than likely frustration and anger will increase along with crime. There are many people wasting the fraudulent thieving colonial white supremacy established Govts money, including those within Government

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Hmmm, well there you go, another one of 'our mob' sitting pretty and comfortable and not short of a dollar I'll bet!!! He needs to look at the real issues, and being the mayor in that location, should address the issues that he's identified as 'health and education' and relevant child support services!!! Don't be like this govt to your own people and take away their basic human rights, there has to be other ways, instead of pushing the govt's 'colonial ways'!!! That stinks to put it mildly!!! 😡😡😡

to overcome this imperialistic illegal system. Their the illegal system understand only one language, which is genocide, eradicate ,any opposition .So ask yourself what do you want. For myself I kick that scum system out of here send them back to a small Island somewhere in the North Sea. No negotiation with this kind of imperialistic trash of a illegal system. Stand up and fight the proper way no talk, which is cheap and it is just a waste of of time their don't hand over your country back again so use what they use....

Wow! He's just a brown noser. It's people like this uncle tom that drag us all down. Makes me angry.

Another puppet

Jacky Jacky.

2 days ago

Blackfulla Revolution

Justice for Elijah
No Justice No Peace
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All A3 these are either on black cartridge paper using oil pastel or watercolor on canvas linen, Unframed, @ $40 plus postage, Contact Bec-lee - Creating dreams for details.
HTF did we end up back at Constitutional recognition and marriage equality vote? 

Didnt we deal with this shit already. Why is the government wasting our time and money (lots of money, $122 MIL) when we have already made it perfectly clear we dont need a money wasting plebiscite to tell you what you already know and we dont want your stinking bullshit constitutional recognition either.

Why is this government hell bent on wasting millions of our dollars on things that will only cause more harm than good to minorities. We know that marraige equality plebiscites held in other countries activated hate campaigns that saw a rise in depression and suicide rates within the young lgbtqia community. Its not like the government will honour the outcome anyway because they already know what the outcome will be, if they had any inclination towards marriage equality they would of saved time and money and done it already.

What happened to Treaty talks, how the eff did we step backwards to constitutional recognition?



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Ignorance here, can someone tell me what the I and a is in lgbtqia?

It's part of the bigger picture of what's going on over the whole planet. People are waking up and demanding equal rights everywhere, for every reason. Those in the dominant cultures of all places are also aware and beginning to stand with those who have been put on the outside for so long. Those in control are not happy. They don't like losing ground and both issues of FNP demanding recognition and gay rights are pushing their buttons. If everyone is equal, who can they feel superior over? Add to that, people are beginning to wake up to the con that is money and look for more sustainable and more community friendly ways of doing things. Those in control are listening and then pushing the opposite of what people say they want. The idea is to cause division between us, to keep us occupied with fighting amongst ourselves and keeping our attention away from them. They know, when we all unite, we will have the power. Terrifies them shitless.

I'm trying to work it out as well. Are they trying to keep us divided so that we don't have a strong voice? It isn't working : ) What I am seeing is us - the real people (not the politicians) - talking to each other and really connecting. Let's keep this up.

1. Polls clearly indicate a majority either want it or do not oppose it. 2. Politicians are paid to represent their constituency. 3. This Govt is hell-bent on budget cuts, not necessarily a bad thing, but pensions, services Etc...... 4. The Govt never saw testing nukes in Aust, introducing conscription or attacking lraq an needing a plebiscide! 5. Only a weak Govt encourages socially divisive arguments for political expediency! 6. Why suddenly are they so obsessed with election promises.....they seem to be happy to break all the other commitments! Just pass it and move on......

can i suggest... i apologise if its inappropriate but i think we could all use this for the people who need it rather than these dickheads who cant see what australia actually is

If I was feeling particularly despondent, I'd say that this is happening to draw attention away from the utter failure that this government is. Like last time- who can say that the sudden election and plebiscite wasn't to draw attention away from Don Dale and Nauru?

I'm so deeply ashamed of this government.

The narrative .. rinse, recycle, repeat. A wonderful distraction.. & so easy.

I liked this post because of your comment, not because of what is happening. It astounds me how this keeps recurring. I guess it's the old tale of "let's keep stalling because the people will eventually tire of resisting ".

YES,YES,YES. just get on with it. All this BS is not going to change people's minds.

Yes why is this government hell bent on spending 122 million dollars?

Our government are a bunch of fuckwits, They are full of piss and wind. I'm so sick of hearing about the fucking plebiscite, do something gov assholes.

Don't they just love to waste our money?

It's time travel BACKWARDS. Beyond infuriating.

Well said, Bravo!!!

Well said BFR!!!

Distraction from their utter useless Leadership sinking far into the abyss, cronies the lot of this appalling Lib snobs, money grabbing, wrecking Australia for their greedy deep pockets. They want us to be divided, these cretins on Canberra's Hill.

There can be no future in same sex marriage waste of time and money. Who needs em.

Parliament will keep pretending like everyone is happily moving towards recognition because that is what it wants. It doesnt care what people want This is how it always is here, they dont have legal right to actions but take them anyway and publically tell everyone it is all ok because they say it is. It is bullshit. Dont accept it. Continue to put forward exactly what you want untill you get it and do not compromise.

Dot look


100% ! our country curtesy of USA

Emily Fitton Tash Rose

Amazing photo of the mob at the Kimberley Land Council Kimberley Ranger Forum last week.

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Thank you for your work well done so far - please keep it up for the sake of our country

Wow. What a crew.

Wonderful group doing important work. Thank you.

Ben Smith Nelly Browne

Don't forget that the native dingo was respected before white man. Please respect the dingo, do not kill them.

7 News Sydney

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If Twiggy, fat fuck Gina and all the other mining companies payed their taxes then us FNP and lower income earners of this country wouldn't be struggling to survive each day.

when are people going to wake up and smell the roses' Domestic Violence Poverty Health Issues etc etc were here long before the bloody welfare card. The problems need to be fixed from the Grass Roots. The White Man is still controlling the Our decision making by influencing the Weak " Give Our People the Tools to Control our needs that we know and live and breath Everyday Ffs. If we keep letting them control us we may aswell go back and live off the land. Cause thats what will eventually happen if Our People keep sucking up to these Billionaires arseholes who really at the end of the day dont give a shit. They go home to Nice home and Food and we are still left with POVERTY. Alcohol Abuse Domestic Violence Homeless and a Cashless Card... 😈😈😈

what do u think is going to happen when u take everything a person has and destroy everything they knew in live. maybe if u shared the land and the riches of Australia from the beginning this wouldn't be happening. greedy white men.

If the Fuckwit paid the taxes he and his companies should, he wouldn't have to drum up media and likes by donating millions of dollars (which is also a tax write off). It's a roundabout LNP donation designed to influence voters and make him look good. And now you've handpicked a couple of token first people's to feather your argument for a cashless welfare card to give a private contract to your mates and take another public service and make a private sector profit at the expense of society's most vulnerable. Narcissistic, sociopaths. It's proven not to work in many countries, and if it's such a great thing why not do it with a non profit public ministry managing it, no? Oh that's right the LNP and their dogs are only about profit. I'm pretty sure you've ripped off many First Nation communities, the lack of education funding and systematic genocide certainly makes that easy to do, doesn't it mate? 😡😡😡😡

What have we Australians done to deserve men like this running our lives and getting richer whilst doing it. Shame on us for letting our black brothers have to bear this alone. Shame on Australia.

Beyond belief...a multi millionaire who has a history of exploiting 'country' for personal gain suggesting that he has the answers for our most marginalised people!

I can't even look at that money-hungry and power-hungry mutt!!! Disgusting piece of work he is!!! And the younger one speaking up there, says she's 'a business woman'??? .... must be getting $$$$$ kickbacks too! Couldn't help but notice her smiling at 'Andrew' after making her comments!!! SICKENING!!! I just hope the majority of the people all stand up together and fight having this card forced onto them! This country is going backwards to the old 'colonial days and ways' it's not going forward for our people that's for sure!!! More disempowerment and control over Australia's First Nations Peoples!!! 😡😡😡 and Shared! Twiggy owns Indue - the company set to profit from this. He's sick

Fuck off Forrest you are just a rich entitled interfering suck...with NO qualifications except your wealth and rich friends....

Forester belittled those two ppl what a prick talking like a great big white saviour for blacks the maggot

What a load of crap.What they think giving out the card will solve the problem there kidding. It's not only happening in the Communities it's everywhere they distribute the card. People are quick to work out how to sell the card for smokes alcohol or drugs.The Government need to check out the store where the people buy there food from as well. Would like to see this fella living on a card.🤔

Khit Fsh sorry, I'm offshore. Will watch when I can. Another injustice I'm sure.

What the fuck is wrong with this , what shit comming out of this govt

Still wanting to control the lives of Aboriginal people! Nothing's changed, just calling it some new word.

So then every anglo needs the card too ....its where it all originated from.

This - I agree with you on. This is wrong. 😔

cheeky hypocritical maggots


Who owns NITV?

No words.

Deport them,no ozzies,fuck off.


Let's ban alcohol for all people....even Twiggy!

What a load of bullshit


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Refugee Action Collective (Victoria)

2 days ago

Ned Kelly

Ali clearly knew about WHITE SUPREMACY ... See MoreSee Less


Whilst hypocrisy finger-pointing and criticizing Aboriginals many as Mr Blanco and Police Commissioner Karl Callaghan passionately avoid the 'inner core issues' related to inhumane colonialism and the colonial white-mans contribution of the destruction caused for Aboriginal people including the 'ongoing' theft of their land and the consequences of colonial violence causing 'lateral violence' within Aboriginal communities.

Avoiding the inner core issues (violence) related to the dire circumstances in Aboriginal communities of today will not help solve the problems. 'Colonial sexual violence' has impacted many Indigenous people the world over - violence breeds violence. Demoralizing oppressive dictatorship white supremacy 'quick fix' Native Welfare operations of the cashless card will not address and fix the Alcohol/Drugs and Sex Abuse problems in communities.

Enforcing Aboriginals back to Native Welfare like operations will further breed more violence, anger and frustration among Aboriginals. The colonial white-man including those with a fraudulent established 'white supremacy Government' who overrule the 'stolen black country' need to humanely help fix up the mess they have help create for Aboriginals - not take them make to the 'flora and fauna' days and under Native Welfare operations again.

NOTE - Colonisation robbed groups of their power, autonomy and land. Living in a world where they are constantly portrayed as second class citizens at best, but often not even citizens at all, it is not surprising that colonised groups have struggled to maintain their own identities and confidence in their abilities. Their anger and frustration about the injustices has manifested itself in violence, not ‘vertically’ towards the colonisers responsible for oppression, but ‘laterally’ towards their own community.

The overwhelming position of power held by the colonisers, combined with internalised negative beliefs, fosters the sense that directing anger and violence toward the colonisers is too risky or fruitless. In this situation we are safer and more able to attack those closest to us who do not represent the potent threat of the colonisers. Or as Richard Frankland explains:…

Boomerang Justice Returns 2

Child sexual abuse was formed from and within our history, including our quite recent history of colonisation that entailed the widespread removal of Aboriginal children and sexual abuse of Aboriginal children by non-Aboriginal men. This has led to high levels of intergenerational trauma, psychological distress and offending and abuse against children today. Inequality and power differential is a key cause of child sexual abuse, and so we should address structural and systemic inequalities that exist between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal, Aboriginal men and women, children and adults.…

Shocking footage shows Aboriginal man stomping on a defenceless child
GRAPHIC WARNING CONTENT: Video has been released showing Aboriginal men stomping on children (pictured) in a bid to stop drug and alcohol-fuelled violence in Western Australia.
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Shocking footage shows Aboriginal man stomping on a defenceless child

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Colonisation robbed groups of their power, autonomy and land. Living in a world where they are constantly portrayed as second class citizens at best, but often not even citizens at all, it is not surprising that colonised groups have struggled to maintain their own identities and confidence in their abilities. Their anger and frustration about the injustices has manifested itself in violence, not ‘vertically’ towards the colonisers responsible for oppression, but ‘laterally’ towards their own community. The overwhelming position of power held by the colonisers, combined with internalised negative beliefs, fosters the sense that directing anger and violence toward the colonisers is too risky or fruitless. In this situation we are safer and more able to attack those closest to us who do not represent the potent threat of the colonisers

Oh I didn't know that only aboriginal people hurt their kids..I thought it was something that happened across the broader community..hmmm

This disgusting oz govt will jump at ANY excuse to put more of our FNP on the Cashless Welfare Card ~ just like in the 'old days' as a way to CONTROL them, as Boomerang Justice Returns 2 says in their comment ~ back to the 'Native Welfare days'! That's exactly how I see it too! Why can't our FN politicians see that and demand better relevant services and support for our people, instead of ALLOWING this govt to take away FNPs basic rights and humanity from them and continue treating them as they did in the 'colonial era'!!!! Our people and supporters need to stand up to this govt for their basic human rights and say NO to this card!!! This country needs to go FORWARD NOT BACKWARDS!!!! SICKENING!!! 😡😡😡

Anything they can sensationalise about us Blackfellas they will. I see the media doesn't run multiple stories about all the good things the TRADITIONAL OWNERS OF THIS COUNTRY DO ALL THE TIME.

then maybe we should remove the welfare completely from muslims it might stop the domestic terror violence and rapes ???

What idiots, talking about violence forgetting how they took australia, nice effects though dramatic music, sirens and all 👍

And who bought the alcohol here?

Twiggy Forrest exploiting Aboriginal people and prospering from their stolen land is behind the cashless card to further his own shameful self interest gains. 😈😈😈😈😈😈

Go to north bridge Perth and kings cross in Sydney welfare card will be introduced their all those on centre link will eventually cop this

And the white woman in Queensland who walked free from court , guilty of attempting to choke her baby 3 times...? No dramatic promotions of white violence? No ongoing outrage? Really? This is just wrong

Govt doesn't understand where and how they should provide their services as there are Gaps in Service Delivery...always has been.

Watch the crime rate soar through the roof if it is bought in to Hedland

I'm appalled indigenous recognition is not the main political topic, this issue has needed addressing soft over 200 years as much as I am for marriage equality, the rights of the original land holders of our nation have been neglected much longer and much harsher.

Send Milo home to where he originated from


My fabulous work colleague A.C. Has designed this T.shirt ... modelled by the lovely Shontaye. 

She says These shirts were just designed to see how they turned out but if I get alot of interest in them, I would consider selling them. 

The reason they were made is to raise awareness of the injustices of our people and show my support to the families of those named. I really hope no one gets offended, this was not my intention.

Offended? No way ... too deadly! 


Contact at the page below if interested in purchase

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Is it offensive for a non indigenous person to wear? I'm always conscious of appreciation of your culture vs appropriation of it. And I'd hate to be disrespectful. I do always wear a small indigenous flag pin as a sign of respect and support. I figure anything that might remind people in my day-to-day what land they are standing on in can only be good.

I'd buy one!!

I'll need 2x mediums or 14s depending on sizing and a size 5 if ya do produce to sell! Simple, straight to the point.

I would buy one! 🖤💛❤️



How do we go about a purchase ?

Look amazing great idea ✊🏽❤️💛🖤


Wayakka Donna 💖

Tegan King

Paula L Craig Lucas J Walker Craig fyi

Latoya Aroha Rule ❤️

Love and solidarity to our deadly brother boys, sister girls and the LGBTI community. Whats this government doing? Theres no need for a plebiscite on love. Its just more of the same divisive politics weve seen used against our communities over and over. Lets make inequality a thing of the past. We can do way better than self-serving politicians. Human rights and justice for all. Like and share if you feel the same way to let our friends know they have our support. LT

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Actually it's worse than that. The government is not proposing a referendum (which would be binding) but a plebiscite (which is not). A postal plebiscite is voluntary and therefore has no standing. It's a smokescreen that will likely achieve nothing good and may cause social harms. My preference would be for the government to change the marriage act back to how it was before the Coalition first changed it back in John Howard's day. It would be relatively straightforward and enable the plebiscite savings to be redirected to helping our most vulnerable people. 🌈

Interesting how the LGBTI community pay taxes and clergymen don't but seem to have all the power in deciding how tax payers money is spent. 🤔

I do not identify as Aboriginal, but I do identify as gay... and I want to say THANK YOU for standing in solidarity with the GLBTIQ community! ❤ Your support is so important and so appreciated. ~Jen

Do these people who don't want equality for gay or black people think it is going to make it go away. People will still love, still be black. We live in a very strange world where a lot of people seem to be waking round with their eyes and ears closed. 🌈🌈🌈🦋🦋🤷🏽‍♀️🤷🏽‍♂️

1. Polls clearly indicate a majority either want it or do not oppose it. 2. Politicians are paid to represent their constituency. 3. This Govt is hell-bent on budget cuts, not necessarily a bad thing, but pensions, services Etc...... 4. The Govt never saw testing nukes in Aust, introducing conscription or attacking lraq an needing a plebiscide! 5. Only a weak Govt encourages socially divisive arguments for political expediency! Just pass it and move on......

From a Whitey Queer, can't say how great it is to see this. I think most of the Queer community realise that this $122million+ could be better spent on any number of things. All we want is the option to marry, and not at the expense of millions that could be better spent elsewhere. The ridiculous thing being, of course, that if Queers were allowed to marry, there'd be plenty more revenue for other worthwhile causes... Still, this is what happens when politicians put ideology before pragmatism and equal rights...

Thank you, love and solidarity 65,000 times back to you. Human rights and justice for all xoxo

Thank you for the support and solidarity it means so very much xx

Is so frustrating to Express myself Samething so Easy Government is Avoiding Again to Do the Right thing and Change History by Just Giving People Humans Rights.

122 million, could be spent more wisely. 😩

Thank you, and right back at you 💕

Well said BR 👍🏿

thank you, solidarity in our struggles, forever

Brilliantly said xxxx

Thank you!


Share share!

Well said

Solidarity 💞

Thank you


Thanks for the intersectional support xoxo this is how we win rights for everyone.

Interesting how these government officials have issues with love. Also interesting that the church are demanding to see the details first. If God can let pedophiles in the church, then I think letting gay couples choose to marry each other is a simple request. I am happy to live in a world where the worst thing a man can do is love another man!

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Justice For Elijah!

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Everytime I see that beautiful child's face it's like a punch in the gut. Sad. So sad.

Is there anyone going from Sydney that I can catch a ride with? I really would like to go and show my support.

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Comment on Facebook

How about the truth of why they are in prison? Anyone can quote numers but the real challenge is to tell the truth about why they are there! Raise the standards of your people!

So bloody true

Good vid. Calls it as it is.

3 days ago

John C Scrutton

good on you brother. australia is a land of opportunity. a land of progression and wealth. a land of tolerance. yet my great grand-mother was full aboriginal. the rest have been watered down. we as a family grew up and got an education. i was 15 years in the bush, then lived in town. not accepted even though i was lighter than some of the residence. i have retired now. but i have always worked hard, but still copped it. i never been dis-honest or in jail. ...yet. still time but... i just turned 69... . may the spirits see your journey and turn this country around. .... mumuk. ... See MoreSee Less


Comment on Facebook

Bec-lee - Creating dreams

3 days ago

Zell Crawford

Hi everyone, I just want to say that world war 3 could happen at any moment. North Korea have threatened that they have bombs to reach Darwin and the top of Qld. Im telling you this as i want you all in those areas to keep your eye on the news and be safe. Im worried about all the people living up in those areas. Maybe there needs to be some plan to get people to safety before it happens. Im not trying to be an alarmist, just worried about all you lovely people. Stay safe. xx ... See MoreSee Less

Nailed it!

Comment on Facebook

They are nothing but filth and we need an uprising pretty quick

From a position of strength comes power. When we're no longer curiosities and we take our institutions seriously, or obligations ernestly and we as a nation of peoples can look upon the interloper as such and afford them all which we would in times gone by will we grasp our birthright. Our leaders need to be the strong, the fierce and the proud. Not cloying sycophants who cling to the scraps from the Protector's table as if we should, as a people, be thankful for hey another handout. Demand excellence in your teachers, demand excellence in your Healthcare providers. Demand excellence in yourself. We cannot close a gap with stopgap measures.

All Australians need to seek recognition form the First Nations People. You can start with me - I sincerely request to be recognised as an Australian. I was born here - and have lived my life in such a was as to build a society that empowers its citizens - and eliminates self-interest, especially at the highest levels. Anything else you need to know?

Plot twist. Love it. Its the strength of the Aboriginal spirit , that the culture is still going, the Custodians have been here on this land , before time was time and will be here long after white man has gone. If only they could understand the Importance of the Aboriginal culture and connection to Land and Spirit. To the Elders, I thankyou for having me as a visitor on this Land. Sending Love and Respect as I walk here in Dharawal country.

Nailed nothing sorry. Why would you even want recognition from the government you despise? This is just a hate page. You have good intentions but way off the mark

True..very true..the first people dont even get a room in parliment the called Librals...Labour..

I agree totaly, you guys were here first. We should be paying taxes for the lease of your land. Unfortunately the white fella don't trust you with all that money. They think that you will just piss it up the wall. I think we all have to recognise that none of us came here by choice, except new imigrants that is. The patriotic movement says that new imigrants should assimilate and learn the language of the country, and yet only a few of them have attempted to learn the blackfella tounge.

This is something i do agree with absolutely. This is a notion that can turn Aboriginal people onto a position that reinforces their innate standing on this continent, by realizing no legitimacy could ever be sought without the proper acknowledgement from them. Empowering in a sense, this opens doors to other avenues where empowering rhetoric and philosophy can inprove the collective consciousness.

Unless you ALL walk to Canberra ...your chances will stay asleep !.... All of you along with the sympathisants ......

That's what an election is for

Too much YES to handle

So much YES!


Yes .

yes - nailed it!



well said


yes, yes, yes




Hopefully our people will get some peace , having justice served 👍🏽
Women Of The Island
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